Many instances, the typical individual makes use of the phrases “cement” and “concrete” interchangeably with out realizing that there’s a distinction. Even when the handyman refers to “cement,” there may be typically a query as to precisely what he means. Earlier than going into the main points on mixing and numerous initiatives, here’s a definition of phrases: Handyman portland
1. Portland cement is a manufactured product bought in sacks that normally comprise 1 cubic foot.
2. Cement is a mix of Portland cement, sand and water.
3. Concrete is a mix of Portland cement and sand with gravel added to provide it power and bulk, plus water.
4. Mortar is a mix of Portland cement, sand and water with about 10% hydrated lime added.
5. Grout is a flowing mass of cement or concrete.
How A lot of Every?
For many cement jobs – to set flagstones or patch a home basis, you want 1 a part of Portland cement to 2½” elements of fresh, fantastic sand.
For concrete jobs, the proportion varies relying upon the use to which the concrete is put.
For mortar mixes – for enjoying brick or concrete block or repointing brick – use 1 half mortar cement or 1 half Portland cement with 10% lime added to 2½^” elements fantastic, clear sand plus water.
Fundamental Instruments for Concrete Work
Listed below are a number of of the fundamental instruments you want when doing cement or concrete work about the home:
1. Common-purpose trowel – for putting cement or concrete when doing any concrete work.
2. Pointing trowel – for smaller restore and patching jobs and in addition ending particulars, particularly the joint between rows of brick.
3. Wooden float – for ending the floor, making it clean however with a gritty texture.
4. Metal float – for ending the floor, making it clean, slick and laborious.
5. Edger – for ending sidewalks and enormous surfaces the place rounded corners are desired.
6. Strike board – for placing off the surplus of the concrete; it leaves the floor degree.
7. Tamper – for eradicating air inclusions in thick sections of freshly poured concrete.
8. Broom – for ending floor of concrete jobs with a tough, non-slip floor.
Making a Measuring Field
When doing any in depth mixing of your personal cement or concrete, a measuring field is exceedingly useful, particularly when utilizing giant portions. You can also make this bottomless measuring field in just some minutes and keep away from counting the substances by the shovels-full.
Use ¾” plywood or 1″ thick lumber to make a field with 4 sides – a cubic foot – 12″ excessive, 12″ extensive and 12″ deep. Safe the perimeters with screws set about 2″ aside. Two brief lengths of 2×2 hooked up on the perimeters make it straightforward to maneuver the measuring field about.
Find out how to Combine
All of the substances should be totally blended to do the job. You probably have failed to combine the Portland cement with the opposite supplies, you undoubtedly will encounter issue later; the job simply will not end up proper. In the event you comply with a number of primary guidelines, it is possible for you to to deal with cement and concrete like an skilled.
1. Combine the cement or concrete close to the place the place it’s for use.
2. Combine the cement or concrete simply earlier than you’re prepared to make use of it. As soon as blended, the cement or concrete begins to set.
3. You’ll be able to combine cement or concrete in a wheelbarrow, on any concrete floor or on a sheet of ply-wood. Nonetheless, upon getting completed pouring the combo, wash the floor off utterly in order that no cement or concrete hardens and sticks.
4. It’s best for the house owner doing a job to combine a few half a bag of Portland cement with the wanted quantities of sand and gravel (when making concrete). That is about probably the most handy quantity for a handyman to deal with at one time.
5. Combine the Portland cement and sand totally when dry. After these two are totally blended you’ll be able to add gravel when making concrete.
6. Solely after the gravel is totally blended in with the Portland cement and sand do you have to add the water.
7. All the time measure the substances – do not simply guess. As a information, if you do not have a “measuring field,” use a shovel to measure. Do not forget that 1 shovel of Portland cement is the same as 1 shovel of damp sand or 2 shovels of dry sand or 2 shovels of gravel.
8. Observe the method needed for the combo you’re getting ready. Cement and concrete used for various functions comprise totally different proportions of Portland cement, sand and gravel.
9. When mixing concrete, the dimensions of the gravel you employ relies upon upon the thickness of the concrete you’re pouring. The gravel ought to be not lower than one-fourth nor greater than one-third the thickness of the concrete mass. For instance, when pouring a 4″ thick layer of concrete, use clear, laborious gravel in sizes from ¼” as much as about 1″ or 1½”.
READY-MIXED CONCRETE – Comparatively new is the provision of already blended concrete from native corporations. The concrete is delivered in a particular truck and is prepared for pouring in place.
The handyman may also use one other type of ready-mixed concrete; that is offered already blended in luggage. All he has to do is add the water. This ready-mixed concrete and cement is ready on the manufacturing unit. Right here is all you must do:
1. Empty the bag of ready-mixed cement, and blend it as soon as extra by hand whereas nonetheless dry.
2. Add water as specified on the bag. proportion is one gallon of water to 90 kilos of the concrete combination.
3. Combine totally utilizing a hoe, shovel or trowel.
4. Use the combo instantly; in no case ought to moist combination stand for greater than 45 minutes.
Many dwelling enchancment initiatives you’ll undertake contain the making of a picket kind. These types ought to be product of sound lumber, freed from knots and decay. The lumber ought to be dressed or smoothed on a minimum of one facet as a result of it’s simpler to take away and leaves a greater end. That is significantly vital if the floor is to be painted afterwards.
If the cement of concrete won’t be painted afterwards, you could use oil, shellac or varnish over the wooden to make them simpler to take away.
If the shape is about within the floor, as for sidewalks, stake the surface of the shape. But when the article you make is separate, as a stone for a stroll, you’ll be able to set the shape on a sheet of tarpaper or roofing paper.
All the time align the shape to see that the tops are degree. Additionally make sure that the concrete fills in all the shape and that there are not any “holes” within the mass.
The Curing Course of
When a excessive diploma of water-tightness, sturdiness and power is desired, the cement or concrete ought to be cured. Curing is a course of that delays the evaporation of the water within the combine. It lengthens and intensifies the hardening course of, which is just a chemical response between the Portland cement and the water.
The curing course of continues so long as water is current to hydrate the cement. If concrete just isn’t moist-cured, the floor dries first, typically simply after ending, and earlier than hardening of the mass beneath. Thus flooring, sidewalks and all surfaces topic to put on will last more if they’re moist-cured for a number of days. Moist-curing of all patch work is important.
The curing course of itself could be very easy. The cement should be coated and stored moist. The overlaying materials will be moist burlap, canvas or straw. It ought to be stored moist by periodic sprinkling for a minimum of 5 days. The overlaying ought to be positioned on as quickly as it may be completed with out marring the floor.
Partitions and vertical surfaces will be protected by leaving the types in place quickly or by hanging the overlaying over them. In some instances, the overlaying materials will be distributed with so long as the floor is stored moist by periodic sprinkling.
The most effective coverings for curing is sheet plastic, accessible in giant sizes and in rolls. About three or 4 hours after the floor of the concrete has been smoothed, it will likely be laborious sufficient to take the plastic overlaying with out sticking. Tack the plastic to the picket types, the place used, or tape it in place with masking tape. The plastic will stop water evaporation so no periodic sprinkling is important.
Make a “Reminiscence Stroll”
A “Reminiscence Stroll” resulting in your driveway or curving round your backyard is usually a supply of fixed enjoyment to your complete household.
Such a stroll just isn’t too troublesome to make. After your first stones are laid, you could have a seamless mission to maintain memorable household dates alive.
The primary stones for the stroll can comprise all of the vital dates you now have. There ought to be one with the date of your marriage ceremony; one other for the birthday of your first baby; if the household is rising, have a stone imprinted with the birthday of every baby. You would possibly embody the date you got your first dwelling in addition to different dates that convey again reminiscences.
The stones will be comprised of a dependable dry pre-mixed concrete that wants solely the addition of water to make a superb workable combine. Use the concrete combine as an alternative of the mortar or sand combine. You need power for the stones.
A easy kind comprised of 2×2 lumber will begin you off. You have to 10′ to 12′. Notch close to the ends so the shape will match collectively like a toddler’s constructing logs. In making these types, you do not have to be as exact as in cupboard work. Actually, you will be downright sloppy and are available out all proper. Be certain the tops are degree, although, so your stones will likely be degree. Make the types with inside dimensions about two toes by two toes. This provides you with sq. stones, however will not be too troublesome to deal with while you go to put them. One 90-pound bag of the dry pre-mixed concrete will fill this type with the addition of about one gallon of water. This provides you with 4 sq. toes of stone at a price ranging between 40¢ and 45¢ per sq. foot, relying on the a part of the nation you reside in.
An previous piece of tarpaper can function the bottom when pouring the concrete. In the event you begin throughout inclement climate or within the winter, you’ll be able to pour the stones in your storage or basement. Let every stone treatment about 24 hours, and you can also make one every night.
Combine the concrete in a wheelbarrow utilizing a backyard hoe to totally work the water into the combo. Then use a shovel to fill the shape. Use a strike board comprised of scrap lumber to degree off the combo. Then float with a metal trowel to get a clean end. Use an edger to provide a slight curve to the highest of the stones.
After you could have this clean end, mark the date with a stick or piece of pipe. Use one thing you’ll be able to deal with simply. You need to use script or block printing. Do that quickly after you could have smoothed the floor and earlier than the concrete has arrange an excessive amount of.
If you wish to begin a sequence exhibiting how your kids are rising up, have them make footprints within the concrete. Higher use previous sneakers. You’ll be able to simply scrape the combo off. Depart sufficient house beneath the footprints so that you can mark the date. Then annually on their birthdays, make a brand new stone with date and footprints. Change one stone in your stroll with the brand new one.
After the stones are accomplished, lay them in a mattress of sand. With an area of a few inches between every stone, there will likely be no hazard of cracking on account of frost. The stones will likely be about two inches thick, in case your kind lumber has been correctly dressed. The areas between the stones will be stuffed with sand. Your pathway, in fact, ought to be the width of the stones – two toes – and the depth – two inches. You have to to dig the bottom out to those dimensions if you’d like the stroll degree together with your grass. Or, you would possibly want to merely lay the stones out in a stroll sample on high of the grass. Through the use of sand as your laying base, you’ll be able to maintain the stroll versatile for the addition of the brand new stones. For the reason that stones will likely be comparatively unfastened, they might heave throughout the winter. However it’s not a lot hassle to push them again into place.